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Patient Preferences for Rescue Medications in the Treatment of Breakthrough Cancer Pain

  • Author Footnotes
    a These authors contributed equally to this study.
    Dan Wu
    Footnotes
    a These authors contributed equally to this study.
    Affiliations
    Department of Anesthesiology (D.W., J-L.S.), Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, P.R. China

    Department of Pain Medicine (D.W., Z.Z., X.H., Q.R., L.L., Q.C.), Lishui Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Key Laboratory of Imaging Diagnosis and Minimally Invasive Intervention Research, Lishui, Zhejiang Province, P.R. China
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  • Author Footnotes
    a These authors contributed equally to this study.
    Yingjie Hua
    Footnotes
    a These authors contributed equally to this study.
    Affiliations
    Department of Pain Medicine (D.W., Z.Z., X.H., Q.R., L.L., Q.C.), Lishui Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Key Laboratory of Imaging Diagnosis and Minimally Invasive Intervention Research, Lishui, Zhejiang Province, P.R. China
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  • Zhongwei Zhao
    Affiliations
    Department of Pain Medicine (D.W., Z.Z., X.H., Q.R., L.L., Q.C.), Lishui Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Key Laboratory of Imaging Diagnosis and Minimally Invasive Intervention Research, Lishui, Zhejiang Province, P.R. China
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  • Xufang Huang
    Affiliations
    Department of Pain Medicine (D.W., Z.Z., X.H., Q.R., L.L., Q.C.), Lishui Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Key Laboratory of Imaging Diagnosis and Minimally Invasive Intervention Research, Lishui, Zhejiang Province, P.R. China
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  • Qiaoying Rao
    Affiliations
    Department of Pain Medicine (D.W., Z.Z., X.H., Q.R., L.L., Q.C.), Lishui Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Key Laboratory of Imaging Diagnosis and Minimally Invasive Intervention Research, Lishui, Zhejiang Province, P.R. China
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  • Lu Liu
    Affiliations
    Department of Pain Medicine (D.W., Z.Z., X.H., Q.R., L.L., Q.C.), Lishui Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Key Laboratory of Imaging Diagnosis and Minimally Invasive Intervention Research, Lishui, Zhejiang Province, P.R. China
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  • Yangrui Xiao
    Affiliations
    Department of Radiology (Y.X.), Lishui Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Key Laboratory of Imaging Diagnosis and Minimally Invasive Intervention Research, Lishui, Zhejiang Province, P.R. China
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  • Qiaoyan Chen
    Affiliations
    Department of Pain Medicine (D.W., Z.Z., X.H., Q.R., L.L., Q.C.), Lishui Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Key Laboratory of Imaging Diagnosis and Minimally Invasive Intervention Research, Lishui, Zhejiang Province, P.R. China
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  • Jian-Liang Sun
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to: Jian-Liang Sun, Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Huansha Road, Shangcheng District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, P.R. China.
    Affiliations
    Department of Anesthesiology (D.W., J-L.S.), Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, P.R. China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    a These authors contributed equally to this study.

      Abstract

      Objective

      The discrete choice experiment (DCE) is conducted in this study to discuss Chinese cancer patients' risk-benefit preferences for rescue medications (RD) and their willingness to pay (WTP) in the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP).

      Method

      Through literature reviews, specialist consultation, and patient surveys, this work finally included five attributes in the DCE questionnaire, i.e., the remission time of breakthrough pain, adverse reactions of the digestive system, adverse reactions of the neuropsychiatric system, administration routes, and drug costs (estimating patients' WTP). The alternative-specific conditional logit model is used to analyze patients' preferences and WTP for each attribute and its level and to assess the sociodemographic impact and clinical characteristics.

      Results

      A total of 134 effective questionnaires were collected from January, 1 to April, 5 in 2022. Results show that the five attributes all have a significant impact on cancer patients' choice of “rescue medications” (P<0.05). Among these attributes, the remission time after drug administration (10.0; 95%CI 8.5-11.5) is the most important concern for patients, followed by adverse reactions of the digestive system (8.5; 95%CI 7.0-10.0), adverse reactions of the neuropsychiatric system (2.9; 95%CI 1.4-4.3), and administration routes (0.9; 95%CI 0-1.8). The respondents are willing to spend 1182 yuan (95%CI 605-1720 yuan) per month for “rescue medications” to take effect within 15 minutes and spend 1002 yuan (95%CI 605-1760 yuan) per month on reducing the incidence of drug-induced adverse reactions in the digestive system to 5%.

      Conclusion

      For Chinese cancer patients, especially those with moderate/severe cancer pain, the priority is to relieve the BTcP more rapidly and reduce adverse drug reactions more effectively. This study indicates these patients' expectations for the quick control of breakthrough pain and their emphasis on the reduction of adverse reactions. These findings are useful for doctors, who are encouraged to communicate with cancer patients about how to better alleviate the BTcP.

      Key Words

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