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Predictors of Documented Goals-of-Care Discussion for Hospitalized Patients With Chronic Illness

  • Alison M. Uyeda
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., R.A.E, J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Cambia Palliative Care Center of Excellence at UW Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., L.C.B., R.A.E., J.S., W.B.L., T.C., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., R.A.E., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA
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  • Robert Y. Lee
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., R.A.E, J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Cambia Palliative Care Center of Excellence at UW Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., L.C.B., R.A.E., J.S., W.B.L., T.C., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., R.A.E., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA
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  • Lauren R. Pollack
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., R.A.E, J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Cambia Palliative Care Center of Excellence at UW Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., L.C.B., R.A.E., J.S., W.B.L., T.C., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., R.A.E., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA
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  • Sudiptho R. Paul
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., R.A.E, J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Cambia Palliative Care Center of Excellence at UW Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., L.C.B., R.A.E., J.S., W.B.L., T.C., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., R.A.E., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA
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  • Lois Downey
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., R.A.E, J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Cambia Palliative Care Center of Excellence at UW Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., L.C.B., R.A.E., J.S., W.B.L., T.C., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., R.A.E., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA
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  • Lyndia C. Brumback
    Affiliations
    Cambia Palliative Care Center of Excellence at UW Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., L.C.B., R.A.E., J.S., W.B.L., T.C., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington (L.C.B.), Seattle, Washington, USA
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  • Ruth A. Engelberg
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., R.A.E, J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Cambia Palliative Care Center of Excellence at UW Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., L.C.B., R.A.E., J.S., W.B.L., T.C., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., R.A.E., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA
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  • James Sibley
    Affiliations
    Cambia Palliative Care Center of Excellence at UW Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., L.C.B., R.A.E., J.S., W.B.L., T.C., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Department of Biomedical Informatics and Medical Education, University of Washington (J.S., W.B.L., T.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA
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  • William B. Lober
    Affiliations
    Cambia Palliative Care Center of Excellence at UW Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., L.C.B., R.A.E., J.S., W.B.L., T.C., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Department of Biomedical Informatics and Medical Education, University of Washington (J.S., W.B.L., T.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Department of Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Informatics, University of Washington (W.B.L.), Seattle, Washington, USA
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  • Trevor Cohen
    Affiliations
    Cambia Palliative Care Center of Excellence at UW Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., L.C.B., R.A.E., J.S., W.B.L., T.C., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Department of Biomedical Informatics and Medical Education, University of Washington (J.S., W.B.L., T.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA
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  • Janaki Torrence
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., R.A.E, J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Cambia Palliative Care Center of Excellence at UW Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., L.C.B., R.A.E., J.S., W.B.L., T.C., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., R.A.E., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA
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  • Erin K. Kross
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., R.A.E, J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Cambia Palliative Care Center of Excellence at UW Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., L.C.B., R.A.E., J.S., W.B.L., T.C., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., R.A.E., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA
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  • J. Randall Curtis
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to: J. Randall Curtis, MD, MPH, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, 325 Ninth Avenue, Box 359762, Seattle, WA USA.98104.
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., R.A.E, J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Cambia Palliative Care Center of Excellence at UW Medicine, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., L.C.B., R.A.E., J.S., W.B.L., T.C., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA

    Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington (A.M.U., R.Y.L., L.R.P., S.R.P., L.D., R.A.E., J.T., E.K.K., J.R.C.), Seattle, Washington, USA
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      Abstract

      Context

      Goals-of-care discussions are important for patient-centered care among hospitalized patients with serious illness. However, there are little data on the occurrence, predictors, and timing of these discussions.

      Objectives

      To examine the occurrence, predictors, and timing of electronic health record (EHR)-documented goals-of-care discussions for hospitalized patients.

      Methods

      This retrospective cohort study used natural language processing (NLP) to examine EHR-documented goals-of-care discussions for adults with chronic life-limiting illness or age ≥80 hospitalized 2015-2019. The primary outcome was NLP-identified documentation of a goals-of-care discussion during the index hospitalization. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations with baseline characteristics.

      Results

      Of 16,262 consecutive, eligible patients without missing data, 5,918 (36.4%) had a documented goals-of-care discussion during hospitalization; approximately 57% of these discussions occurred within 24 hours of admission. In multivariable analysis, documented goals-of-care discussions were more common for women (OR=1.26, 95%CI 1.18-1.36), older patients (OR=1.04 per year, 95%CI 1.03-1.04), and patients with more comorbidities (OR=1.11 per Deyo-Charlson point, 95%CI 1.10-1.13), cancer (OR=1.88, 95%CI 1.72-2.06), dementia (OR=2.60, 95%CI 2.29-2.94), higher acute illness severity (OR=1.12 per National Early Warning Score point, 95%CI 1.11-1.14), or prior advance care planning documents (OR=1.18, 95%CI 1.08-1.30). Documentation of these discussions was less common for racially or ethnically minoritized patients (OR=0.823, 95%CI 0.75-0.90).

      Conclusion

      Among hospitalized patients with serious illness, documented goals-of-care discussions identified by NLP were more common among patients with older age and increased burden of acute or chronic illness, and less common among racially or ethnically minoritized patients. This suggests important disparities in goals-of-care discussions.

      Key Words

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