JPSM will be printing only original articles
• Types of Articles
• Manuscript Submission
• Submission checklist
• Ethics in publishing
• Conflict of interest
• Submission declaration
• Use of inclusive language
• Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses
• Editor's note regarding race
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Language (usage and editing services)
• Confidentiality/Informed Consent/IRB or Ethics Committee Review
• Submission
• Clinical Trial Registration
• Manuscript Preparation
• Preparing Electronic Files
• Essential title page information
• Title, Abstract, Key Message, Key Words, and Running Title
• Disclosures and Acknowledgments
• Artwork
• Illustrations
• Tables
• References
• Research data
• Proofs
• Offprints

JPSM will be printing only original articles

JPSM has seen unprecedented growth in the number of submissions to the journal. As a result, the wait time from acceptance to publication in a print journal has increased dramatically. In an effort to reduce this backlog, starting with the January 2022 issue, we will be printing only original articles in the monthly journal. All other article types will be published online only. Please be aware that all published articles will appear in the journal?s table of contents and have the same attributes with regard to indexing.

Types of Articles

The Journal of Pain and Symptom Management publishes the following types of articles:

Note: JPSM publishes descriptions of original research findings in multiple sections. Please submit new work of this type to the appropriate section based on the description below.

Original Articles may describe research studies of any type or design. The section is appropriate for articles describing methodologically rigorous studies and studies that generate complex results. Articles that describe clinical trials should generally comport with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement and guidelines (see and its links). Clinical trials also must be registered at an accepted online repository before enrollment. Most Phase II and Phase III trials should be registered at either the National Institute of Health site,, or the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials site, (see for guidance concerning the types of trials that must be registered). The maximum length for Original Articles is 3500 words (not including Abstract or references) and the text should be divided into sections with the headings Abstract (see below), Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Disclosures and Acknowledgments, and References. In the Methods section of an article describing a clinical trial, please include a statement about where the registration information is available.

Brief Reports may describe research studies of any type or design. The section is appropriate for work that can be described succinctly, often because it is preliminary, largely confirmatory, or limited by its design or methodology. Articles that describe clinical trials should generally comport with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement and guidelines (see and its links). Clinical trials also must be registered at an accepted online repository before enrollment. The maximum length of a Brief Report is 2500 words (not including Abstract or references) and the text should be divided into sections with the headings Abstract (see below), Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Disclosures and Acknowledgments, and References.

Brief Methodological Reports present research studies that are intended to expand the measurement capabilities of existing instruments. Although translation may be part of the reported work, appropriate submissions typically describe validation or statistical innovation. The maximum length is 2500 words (not including Abstract or references) and the text should be divided into sections with the headings Abstract (see below), Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Disclosures and Acknowledgments, and References.

Brief Quality Improvement Reports present quality improvement research. Appropriate submissions describe the problem that has been addressed, the quality framework used to implement change, and the specific methods and outcomes. Details sufficient to encourage replication are encouraged. The maximum length is 2500 words (not including Abstract or references) and an Abstract is required (see below). Suggested headings include Background, Measures, Intervention, Outcomes, Conclusions/Lessons Learned.

Clinical Notes are case series or small observational studies describing new or interesting clinical observations. The maximum length is 2500 words (not including Abstract or references) and an Abstract is required (is required). Suggested headings include Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Disclosures and Acknowledgments, and References.

Palliative Care Rounds use a case to describe an important clinical condition or syndrome, and then provide a brief narrative review of the evidence supporting best practices of assessing and/or managing that condition. The narrative review should include a description of the condition or syndrome, prevalence and pathophysiology, and a concise summary of treatment options with the evidence supporting each. The maximum length is 2500 words (not including references), and an Abstract is not required. Suggested headings include Introduction, Case Description, Discussion, and References.

Letters may be used to report case descriptions or preliminary observations acquired through studies. They are also a forum for opinion, including specific comments related to a previously published article. Letters may undergo external review, and those that comment on a prior JPSM publication are typically forwarded to the authors of this publication for a response. Letters are published online only; the title and a link to the JPSM website appears in the contents of the printed Journal. The maximum length for all types of Letters is 1250 words (not including references); no more than 10 references and one table or figure is suggested. Letters should begin with "To the Editor." Those that describe research findings may use additional headings, include Methods, Results, Comment, and References; those that present a case description may include the headings Case Description, Comment, and References.

Note: JPSM publishes clinical observations, experiences and reviews of existing work in multiple sections. Please submit new work of this type to the appropriate section based on the description below.

Reviews describe and evaluate previously published material. The emphasis is on systematic reviews, but high-quality narrative reviews will be considered. Systematic reviews should comport with the minimum standards described in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses ( or comparable guideline. The maximum length of a Review is 7000 words and an Abstract is required (see below).

Special Articles and Special Series Articles JPSM may consider an article that does not fit into other sections as a Special Article. In some cases, a thematically-linked group of these articles is developed as a Special Series on behalf of an organization or through the efforts of an individual. Topics have included program descriptions, meeting proceedings, calls for research, new hypotheses, and descriptions of understudied or poorly recognized areas of clinical interest. The maximum length of a Special Article is 7000 words and an Abstract is required (see below).

Note: JPSM publishes reports that focus on specific areas or interests, as described below. Please submit new work to the appropriate section.

Ethical Issues in Palliative Care couple a case description that includes an observation or experience with important ethical implications to a brief narrative review that provides a bioethical analysis. The maximum length is 2500 words (not including Abstract or references) and an Abstract is not required. Suggested headings include Introduction, Case Description, Defining Issues and Ethical Analysis, Conclusion of the Case, Comment, and References.

Humanities: Art, Language, and Spirituality in Health presents experiences and observations that epitomize the humanistic concerns and challenges encountered in the care of seriously ill patients and their families. Articles may be case descriptions or personal accounts. The maximum length is 2500 words and an Abstract is not required. Authors interested in submitting work to this section are strongly encouraged to write the Managing Editor to indicate this interest and describe the planned submission. Feedback about the proposed submission will be provided by an Editor of this section.

Therapeutic Reviews present and critically evaluate the use of specific drugs and drug classes used in palliative care. This section represents an ongoing collaboration between JPSM and the Editors of, at which additional content is provided. Authors interested in submitting similar content should consider other sections of JPSM, including Reviews or Special Articles.

Methodological Reviews for Hospice and Palliative Care Research. For this section of the Journal, we are interested in manuscripts addressing important methodological issues that are particularly relevant to hospice and palliative care research. Examples include, but are not limited to: measurement methods for important outcomes, study recruitment and retention strategies, research design, research innovations, meaningful stakeholder engagement, and analytic methods. The maximum length is 3500 words (not including Abstract or references). A narrative Abstract is required and limited to 250 words. Text should be divided into sections: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Disclosures and Acknowledgments, and References.

Educational Exchange describes innovations related to pedagogy in palliative care. The maximum length is 2500 words and an Abstract is not required. Authors interested in submitting work to this section are strongly encouraged to write the Managing Editor to indicate this interest and describe the planned submission. Feedback about the proposed submission will be provided by an Editor of this section.

Manuscript Submission

The JPSM uses a web-based online manuscript submission and review system. Please go to to submit your manuscript electronically. The website guides authors stepwise through the creation and uploading of the various files.

All correspondence, including the Editor's decision and request for revisions, will be by e-mail. Authors may send queries concerning the submission process, manuscript status, or journal procedures to the Editorial Office at [email protected]

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information on Ethics in publishing.

Conflict of interest

All authors MUST disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. A conflict of interest form is integrated into the submission process and must be completed before your submission is finalized. See also

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder. This information may be included in the cover letter.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend to avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist" and "whitelist". We suggest using alternatives that are more appropriate and (self-) explanatory such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" and "allowlist". These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses

Reporting guidance
For research involving or pertaining to humans, animals or eukaryotic cells, investigators should integrate sex and gender-based analyses (SGBA) into their research design according to funder/sponsor requirements and best practices within a field. Authors should address the sex and/or gender dimensions of their research in their article. In cases where they cannot, they should discuss this as a limitation to their research's generalizability. Importantly, authors should explicitly state what definitions of sex and/or gender they are applying to enhance the precision, rigor and reproducibility of their research and to avoid ambiguity or conflation of terms and the constructs to which they refer (see Definitions section below). Authors can refer to the Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines and the SAGER guidelines checklist. These offer systematic approaches to the use and editorial review of sex and gender information in study design, data analysis, outcome reporting and research interpretation - however, please note there is no single, universally agreed-upon set of guidelines for defining sex and gender.

Sex generally refers to a set of biological attributes that are associated with physical and physiological features (e.g., chromosomal genotype, hormonal levels, internal and external anatomy). A binary sex categorization (male/female) is usually designated at birth ("sex assigned at birth"), most often based solely on the visible external anatomy of a newborn. Gender generally refers to socially constructed roles, behaviors, and identities of women, men and gender-diverse people that occur in a historical and cultural context and may vary across societies and over time. Gender influences how people view themselves and each other, how they behave and interact and how power is distributed in society. Sex and gender are often incorrectly portrayed as binary (female/male or woman/man) and unchanging whereas these constructs actually exist along a spectrum and include additional sex categorizations and gender identities such as people who are intersex/have differences of sex development (DSD) or identify as non-binary. Moreover, the terms "sex" and "gender" can be ambiguous—thus it is important for authors to define the manner in which they are used. In addition to this definition guidance and the SAGER guidelines, the resources on this page offer further insight around sex and gender in research studies.

Editor's note regarding race

In an effort to critically review the Journal's standards and practices, we are implementing the following guidance principles for the treatment of race and racial disparities in manuscripts that are submitted for consideration:1
  • Race should be clearly defined, and the rationale for including race as a variable should be clearly stated;
  • Authors should address systemic racism, calling it out by name and identifying the form it takes (e.g. internalized, personally mediated, institutionalized);2
  • Authors should not present 'mistrust' as a proximal cause of inequities or disparities, without exploring the contribution of systemic racism to mistrust;
  • Manuscripts should avoid genetic arguments that are grounded in race;
  • Analysis and interpretation of race as an explanatory variable should utilize Critical Race Theory or an equivalent construct that moves beyond simple descriptions of disparities and facilitates planning and action.3
  1. Boyd RW, Lindo EG, Weeks LD, McLemore MR. On racism: A new standard for publishing on racial health inequities. Health Affairs Blog, July 2, 2020. Available at: Access verified July 29, 2020.
  2. Jones CP. Levels of Racism: A theoretic framework and a gardener's tale. American Journal of Public Health. 200; 90:1212-1215.
  3. Ford CL, Airhihenbuwa CO. Critical race theory, race equity, and public health: Toward antiracist praxis. American Journal of Public Health. 2010; 100:S30-S35


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Manuscripts should be submitted exclusively to the Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. Manuscripts are reviewed and edited with the understanding that the authors are transferring all copyright ownership to the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing

Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to state this.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Language (usage and editing services)

Manuscripts should be written in proper English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop or visit our customer support site for more information.

Confidentiality/Informed Consent/IRB or Ethics Committee Review

It is the author's responsibility to ensure patient anonymity in case reports and elsewhere. Identifying information such as names, initials, hospital numbers, and dates must be avoided. Reports of studies involving human subjects must include a statement verifying:
1) that all patients/other paticipants provided written informed consent or that an institutional review board/ethics committee determined that informed consent was not required; and 2) the study was approved by the investigator's institutional review board/ethics committee.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Clinical Trial Registration

JPSM requires that human clinical trials are registered before enrollment in order for the results to be published in the journal. Most Phase II and Phase III trials should be registered at either the National Institute of Health site at, the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials site at, or an equivalent national site for public reporting of trials. For questions about the requirement to register at, please consult the Checklist and Elaboration for Evaluating Whether a Clinical Trial or Study is an Applicable Clinical Trial, which is available on the site. The Methods section of the paper reporting the results of a clinical trial should contain a statement about where the registration information is available to the public.

Submit your article

Please submit your article via

Peer Review

Manuscripts submitted to the Journal of Pain and Symptom Management undergo initial editorial review. Selected manuscripts are sent for external peer review. Note that reviewers are not blinded as to the author's identity.

Manuscript Preparation

Submission items include a cover letter and all elements of the manuscript (including title page, key words, running title, manuscript text, disclosures and acknowledgments, references, tables and figures). Complete instructions for electronic artwork submission can be found at

Preparing Electronic Files

Text and graphics may be submitted as separate files in the following formats:

Text: Use Microsoft Word, WordPerfect, WordPro or Rich Text Format (.rtf). Check the accuracy of all file conversions.
Graphics: Create digital artwork after consulting the Artwork and media instructions page, which contains appropriate instructions. Please note that Elsevier allows the submission of MS Office files (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) provided that they meet certain criteria (see information given on Electronic Artwork website). It is preferred to save files in JPEG or TIFF format. Label figures as referenced in text and include a list of figure legends.

Essential title page information

The title page must include: all authors' full first and last names, degrees, and current institutional affiliations, cities and countries; the name, address, and e-mail address of the designated corresponding author; and a list of the number of tables, figures, and references and the word count for the submission.

Title, Abstract, Key Message, Key Words, and Running Title

Title: The full title of your manuscript must be limited to 100 characters.

Abstract: A concise, structured abstract of not more than 250 words is required for Original Articles, Review Articles, Brief Reports, and Brief Methodological Reports. The abstract should have the following headings: Context, Objectives, Methods, Results, and Conclusion. For Clinical Notes, Palliative Care Rounds, Ethical Issues in Palliative Care, and Special Articles, the Journal will accept either a structured or narrative abstract of no more than 250 words. For Brief Quality Improvement Reports, a structured abstract of no more than 150 words is required; headings are: Background, Measures, Intervention, Outcomes, Conclusions/Lessons Learned. Letters should not have abstracts. Abstracts should be on a separate page and follow the title page.

Key Message: Between the Abstract and the Introduction, we strongly suggest including a Key Message statement. This statement, limited to 50 words, should synopsize the work and highlight its significance. Example: Key Message: ?This article describes a prospective cohort study that describes the prevalence of breathlessness in a previously unstudied population--patients with .... The results indicate that the symptom is highly prevalent, worsens over time, and leads to functional impairment that may be amenable to better symptom control." References should not be included in this Key Message.

Key Words: Immediately after the abstract, please provide a maximum of 6 key words, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These key words will be used for indexing purposes.

Running Title: Please provide a running title of no more than 45 characters and spaces.

NOTE: Abstracts, key words and running title must be included with the Word document of the submission, not just provided online.

Disclosures and Acknowledgments

For ALL types of manuscript submissions, except Letters, authors must complete the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest, which can be found here: In addition, a Disclosure/Conflict of Interest section should be placed after the text and before the References. It must include a disclosure/conflict of interest statement that refers to all the authors. Please either indicate the lack of conflict (i.e., nothing to disclose) or list possible conflicts for each named author. The statement should be consistent with the ICMJE form. Conflicts of Interest include financial or other relationships that could be perceived to influence the manuscript. If uncertain as to what might be considered a potential conflict of interest, authors should err on the side of full disclosure. An Acknowledgments section, if included, should be placed after the Disclosure/Conflict of Interest section, just before the references. It may include the authors' expressions of gratitude, including mention of individuals who contributed to the work but whose involvement was not sufficient to warrant authorship.

Formatting of funding sources

List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, it is recommended to include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.



Black-and-white photographs or line drawings are preferred. Separate typed legends should accompany each figure. Every figure must be cited in the text. If original artwork/photos are used, permission must be obtained from the artist or photographer and credit must be given. If subjects of photographs are persons and they are identifiable, permission must be obtained.

Electronic artwork

General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.


Type each table double-spaced on a separate page, number in order of appearance, and give a brief descriptive title. Every table must be cited in the text. Explanatory information should be placed in footnotes; note that the Journal uses superscript, italic Arabic letters for footnotes, not other symbols, e.g., asterisks. If the data shown are from another source, acknowledgment must be given and permission obtained. Note: Lengthy tables may be published online only, with a link to the Journal website indicated in the print article text. The determination regarding online publication only will be made by the Editor-in-Chief.


Number references in order of their use in the text; do not alphabetize. Identify references in the text with Arabic numerals inside parentheses. When listing authors in the reference list: Five authors or less, list all five authors; six authors or more, list the first three authors followed by et al. For abbreviations of journal names, refer to List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus. Provide inclusive page numbers. Reference accuracy is the responsibility of the author(s). Please do not use EndNote to compile your reference list.

Examples of Reference Style:

Journal Article
Hatler CW, Grove C, Strickland S, Barron S, White BD. The effect of completing a surrogacy information and decision-making tool upon admission to an intensive care unit on length of stay and charges. J Clin Ethics 2012;23:129-138.

Book Chapter
Taylor C, Walker S. Compassion: luxury or necessity? In: Cobb M, Puchalski CM, Rumbold B, eds. Oxford textbook of spirituality in healthcare. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012:135-144.

Cassell EJ. The nature of suffering and the goals of medicine, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Online Citations
World Health Organization. Definition of palliative care. 2008. Available from: definition/en/. Accessed July 27, 2013.

Citation in text

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links

Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, Crossref and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Data references

This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Preprint references

Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.

Journal abbreviations source

Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking

If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Data statement

To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 (or higher) available free from Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site:
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately – please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Note to NIH Grant Recipients

Elsevier will send to PubMed Central the author's manuscript on behalf of authors reporting research supported by an NIH grant. The author manuscript reflects any author-agreed changes made in response to peer review comments. Elsevier will authorize its public access posting on PubMed Central 12 months after final publication. Authors will receive further correspondence from PubMed Central after the manuscript is deposited.

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